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            考研复习抓住重点阅读为先—结构篇

            作者:佚名    文章来源:新浪教育    点击数:    更新时间:2009/10/9

              一、宏观结构

              本文讨论的结构是全文的宏观结构,与前一天所说的段落结构不同。宏观结构一般与文章的主题以及文章展开方式有关?佳性亩廖恼轮饕形逯趾旯劢峁梗阂恢Χ佬阈、花开两朵型、层层递进型、问题---答案型、问题---解决方案型等,其中花开两朵型与问题---答案型较常见。以花开两朵型为例,文章开始提出两个核心概念或两个方面,随后分段论述。把握这种文章的关键是注意这两个核心概念的定义,以及它们的区别和联系。这种结构分为两类,一种是两个概念是并列的,另一种是两个概念形成对比,对于后一种文章要注意两个概念之间的区别,以及作者对各自的态度。下面是2003年考研阅读第三篇文章的宏观结构分析。

              二、宏观结构分析

              In recent years, railroads have been combining with each other, merging into super systems, causing heightened concerns about monopoly. As recently as 1995, the top four railroads accounted for under 70 percent of the total ton-miles moved by rails. Next year, after a series of mergers is completed, just four railroads will control well over 90 percent of all the freight moved by major rail carriers.

              Supporters of the new supersystems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grain, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat.

              The vast consolidation within the rail industry means that most shippers are served by only one rail company. Railroads typically charge such “captive” shippers 20 to 30 percent more than they do when another railroad is competing for the business. Shippers who feel they are being overcharged have the right to appeal to the federal government’s Surface Transportation Board for rate relief, but the process is expensive, time consuming, and will work only in truly extreme cases.

              Railroads justify rate discrimination against captive shippers on the grounds that in the long run it reduces everyone’s cost. If railroads charged all customers the same average rate, they argue, shippers who have the option of switching to trucks or other forms of transportation would do so, leaving remaining customers to shoulder the cost of keeping up the line. It’s a theory to which many economists subscribe, but in practice it often leaves railroads in the position of determining which companies will flourish and which will fail. “Do we really want railroads to be the arbiters of who wins and who loses in the marketplace? ” asks Martin Bercovici, a Washington lawyer who frequently represents shippers.

              Many captive shippers also worry they will soon be hit with a round of huge rate increases. The railroad industry as a whole, despite its brightening fortunes. still does not earn enough to cover the cost of the capital it must invest to keep up with its surging traffic. Yet railroads continue to borrow billions to acquire one another, with Wall Street cheering them on. Consider the $10.2 billion bid by Norfolk Southern and CSX to acquire Conrail this year. Conrail’s net railway operating income in 1996 was just $427 million, less than half of the carrying costs of the transaction. Who’s going to pay for the rest of the bill? Many captive shippers fear that they will, as Norfolk Southern and CSX increase their grip on the market.

              本文的宏观结构是花开两朵型。作者介绍了近几年铁路行业中并购的情况和趋势,阐述了两派—并购支持者(railroads)和铁路托运商(shippers)对并购的不同态度。并购支持者认为这样可以降低成本,提供更好的服务;但是许多铁路托运商都抱怨说并购容易导致垄断,使运输费率大幅上涨。阅读时注意转折词but和表示态度的词汇。

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