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            考研复习抓住重点阅读为先—段落篇

            作者:佚名    文章来源:新浪教育    点击数:    更新时间:2009/10/9

              一、段落的结构

              考研文章由4-5段构成,如何把握它们之间的关系以及段落内部的逻辑对于理解全文有很大关系。本文只讨论段落内部的逻辑。理解了这种逻辑,阅读时就能抓住重点,关注次重点,忽略次要细节,从而提高做题的正确率。段落的基本结构是:段落主题句(简称为TS,即topic sentence)---段落支持句(,简称为SS,即supporting sentences)---段落总结句(CS,即concluding sentence)。有时,段落没有总结句,那么段落的结构就简化为:TS---SS;褂械氖焙,段落开始没有主题句,而在段末有总结句,那么段落的结构就简化为:SS---CS。使情况更为复杂的是:段落中间有时出现转折。段落的重点是段落主题句或段落总结句,整个段落都讨论的关键词以及段落中的转折,阅读时要注意它们,因为它们通常是答案所对应的地方。下面是2004年考研阅读第三篇文章的段落结构分析。

              二、段落结构分析

              When it comes to the slowing economy, Ellen Spero isn’t biting her nails just yet. But the 47-year-old manicurist isn’t cutting, filling or polishing as many nails as she’d like to, either. Most of her clients spend $12 to $50 weekly, but last month two longtime customers suddenly stopped showing up. Spero blames the softening economy. “I’m a good economic indicator, ” she says. “I provide a service that people can do without when they’re concerned about saving some dollars.” So Spero is downscaling, shopping at middle-brow Dillard’s department store near her suburban Cleveland home, instead of Neiman Marcus. “I don’t know if other clients are going to abandon me, too.” she says.

              Even before Alan Greenspan’s admission that America’s red-hot economy is cooling, lots of working folks had already seen signs of the slowdown themselves. From car dealerships to Gap outlets, sales have been lagging for months as shoppers temper their spending. For retailers, who last year took in 24 percent of their revenue between Thanksgiving and Christmas, the cautious approach is coming at a crucial time. Already, experts say, holiday sales are off 7 percent from last year’s pace. But don’t sound any alarms just yet. Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt-tightening.

              Consumers say they’re not in despair because, despite the dreadful headlines, their own fortunes still feel pretty good. Home prices are holding steady in most regions. In Manhattan, “there’s a new gold rush happening in the $4 million to $10 million range, predominantly fed by Wall Street bonuses,” says broker Barbara Corcoran. In San Francisco, prices are still rising even as frenzied overbidding quiets. “Instead of 20 to 30 offers, now maybe you only get two or three,” says JohnTealdi, a Bay Area real-estate broker. And most folks still feel pretty comfortable about their ability to find and keep a job.

              Many folks see silver linings to this slowdown. Potential home buyers would cheer for lower interest rates. Employers wouldn’t mind a little fewer bubbles in the job market. Many consumers seem to have been influenced by stock-market swings, which investors now view as a necessary ingredient to a sustained boom. Diners might see an upside, too. Getting a table at Manhattan’s hot new Alain Ducasse restaurant used to be impossible. Not anymore. For that, Greenspan & Co. may still be worth toasting.

              在这篇文章的几个段落中,第一段首句是这一段的主题句,以讲故事的方式引出本文话题;第二句的转折也值得关注。第二段的首句承接一段的故事点出文章主题:美国经济增长放缓;第二段末出现了转折:经济增长虽然放缓,但是消费者仍然谨慎乐观。第三段的首句是这一段的主题句---消费者并未绝望,中间是具体论述。全文末段的结构最明显:首句是段落主题句---经济增长放缓带来的好处,后面作者说明了好处的具体体现。在弄清段落结构、找到段落主题以后,做题时要结合这些重要的地方思考,才能保证较高的正确率。

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